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Cryptonym: AMPALM

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Described as the MDC/MRR complex circa 1960. An early effort, aided by CIA, to develop an organized anti-Castro united political front. The MDC, also known as the Christian Democrats.
One of the major elements of the original JMARC (overall Cuban operations, including the Bay of Pigs project) program was to develop an organized exile political front which could ultimately be declared a legitimate government in exile. Note that when Oswald's New Orleans nemesis Carlos Bringuier came from Argentina to the USA in 1961, he identified himself as a member of the "MDC in exile".

The MDC probably got this crypt as being part of the "palm" of the peace of Jesus Christ.

Note that Reynoldo Gonzalez reported that MRR was allied with DRE inside Cuba in late 1960, while the MDC was allied with UR.


3/4/60 memo on the unification effort of the anti-Castro forces by Wilmer Aretz, with attachments. This map of the AMPALM Group Directorate shows AMPALM-2/Laureano Batista Falla of the MDC as head of "Political Action" and Angel Fernandez Varela/AMPALM-4 of the MRR as head of "Paramilitary".


5/6/60 memo from Miami to Director: "...JMARC (overall Cuban operations, including the Bay of Pigs project) objectives believe it essential (to) meet political entanglements such as appear to exist in MDC/MRR/AMPALM-4 relationship promptly and unequivocally...his exact relationship with MDC/MRR AMPALM vague...realize MIAM lacking in information on evolution AMPALM-4 present position in relation JMARC and relationship to political elements outside MDC/MRR complex."

124-90041-10098: No Title

9/13/60 report of FBI agent Robert James Dwyer in Miami to Director: "(T)here was a split in the FRD between the action group of Nino Diaz, Antonio Michel Yarbor and Ricardo Lorie, members of the MRR. This action group claims that the desires of their group are frustrated by the political group of the FRD. The political group consists of Varona, Sanchez Arango, Carrillo and Artime." Later, at page 25 of 48: "Ricardo Lorie (QDCOVE), Higinio Diaz (AMNORM-1), Antonio Michel Yabor and Manuel Artime (AMBIDDY-1) are the leaders of this organization. These individuals are in disagreement as to the operation of the MRR and are no longer cooperating with each other." On 7/18/60 Lorie, Yabor and Diaz were expelled and Artime was named as the leader of the MRR (p. 26 of 48).


"In late 1960, there were a series of meetings designed to unify the opposition to Castro. (Gonzalez) met at one time or another with the following people: Alberto Cruz (Rescate), David Salvador of the Nov. 30 movement; Octavio Barroso (UR); Juan Falcon (MRR); Alberto Muller (DRE)...Gonzalez proposed to dissolve all existing organizations and form one new one to lead the fight. No agreement was ever reached, not even for unified military action or unified political action. The MRR/DRE had the most numbers and refused to cooperate, saying they had all they needed and could do the job themselves. Their spokesman from Miami was a DRE member, Julio Hernandez Rojo. After the (Bay of Pigs) invasion, (Juan) Pujol sent Alfredo Izaguirre, who had worked for him, to the US. In the US, Alfredo did not represent Pujol, but claimed himself to be the chief of the MRP/UR group. On his return to Cuba, Alfredo claimed to be appointed by Washington as overall resistance chief for all of Cuba. (Gonzalez) and Pujol refused to cooperate with him." (May 1979 debriefing of Reinol aka Reynoldo Gonzalez/AMCALL-1, conducted by Carl Jenkins)

124-10204-10460: No Title

Re 11/29/60: Memo from Assistant AG Walter Yeagley to Director, FBI on 1/23/61 re report of 11/29/60 that "(MDC) reportedly had a group of 70 men scheduled to begin training at an unknown camp near Ocala, Florida, preparatory to engaging in sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the Castro regime. Juan Mesa, a functionary of MDC, is allegedly trying to obtain information against from some qualified United States military source on the training and organization of the MDC group..." See 124-90019-10248, 8/63, describing Juan Mesa as a "well known CIA cutout." Also see 104-10271-10205: Juan Mesa is described as the father of Magno Bruno Moreno Melo aka Carlos Rivera.

26. From Henry. Police picked up Eugenia 3 March

3/5/61: From JMRIMM to JMBELL: Whole net hiding. Apparently a note from Henry Sloman/Tony Sforza. His AMRYE net stayed in Cuba longer than any other Americans.

124-10219-10113: No Title

In reviewing the file of Carlos Jose Bringuier Exposito (Carlos Bringuier, Oswald's nemesis in New Orleans in 1963) it was revealed that when he applied in Argentina for a visa to enter the United States in January 1961, he identified himself as a member of MDC "in exile".

124-10223-10092: No Title

Airgram, 10/14/63: "The MDC was founded in Cuba by Jose Ignacio Rasco (AMPALM-5) in late 1959...the principal action-minded...is Laureano Batista Falla (AMPALM-2) (no relation to ex-dictator Batista), age 28, who is in charge of military activities. His father is a wealthy Cuban exile who gives him a monthly allowance, which presumably makes up a large amount of the MDC's finances. Batista has been described as "a character", an intellectual, rich, spoiled and effeminate...the organization has tried to come to a working group with Commandos L...So far, however, the MDC's plans to harass Cuba have failed for lack of sufficient financial backing...1st page 11 of 31) the MRR is a centrist exile group with strong Catholic influence. It was formed in mid-1959 in Cuba and was a fighting activist group from its inception. It had an original nucleus of rebel army officers. (The Cuba-based group was broken in mid-1962). The MRR in exile is largely a reflection of Manuel Artime Buesa, its secretary general, who eclipses all other figures in the organization."


November 7-10, 1963, memo by SAS/SO Henry Hecksher regarding AMWORLD and relations with the MDC: Initially, "the MDC was the visible and legal apparatus of a structure whose underground and military apparatus was the MRR. Subsequently, it was agreed to split up. This gave Jose Ignacio Rasco, the head of the MDC, two votes in the FRD. After the Bay of Pigs, the MDC broke up into three groups. The MRR maintains relations with the group under Laureano Batista and has contact with Busto's group. 'But we don't have contact with the group of Fernandez Baduey, i.e., the group of Lucas.' The rift between the MRR and the MDC faction headed by Fernandez Baduey is due to the fact that Baduey attempted the assassination of Francisco, the martyred leader of MRR, the culmination of a series of deep disagreements between the group. Any kind of agreement could be reached between the MRR and the Busto faction of the MDC."

124-90130-10027: No Title

6/30/64: At page 4 of 8, Special Agent William Mayo Drew interviews his source Francisco Rodriguez Tamayo, MM T-1. At page 5 of 8, the memo adds that MM T-1 says "he is acquainted" with Rodriguez Tamayo. The memo also states that Manuel Artime Buesa (AMBIDDY-1) is the head of MRR, an anti-Castro Cuban exile organization.

Bill Simpich

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